Qadhafi Muammer Muhammed
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born in 1942
born in a desert tent near the town of Surt
attended LIbyan military academy in Benghazi
also attended royal military academy at Sandhurst England
took over Libya's leadership in 1969
military overthrow of Libya's monarchy (came into power)
Colonel And commanders and chief of Libyan armed forces
outspoken, radical leader
strong belief in Arab unity under Islam
sought to spread influence
gave military and financial aid to revolutionaries and terrorists all over
denounced by other countries for interfering in other nations affairs
U.N. suspended it's sanctions on Libya
encourages strict obedience to Islam laws
"Oil enabled Quadhafi to build many schools , houses, and hospitals and
his government provides free social services for all citizens."
downturn in oil prices in the 1980/1990's and UN sanctions signified reduced
. He also outlawed alcoholic beverages and gambling, in accordance with
his own strict Islamic principles.
"in 1992/1993, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Libya for refusing
to turn over Libyans suspected of placing bombs onto international civil
flights. In 1999, Libya handed over to the UN officials two men suspected
of planting the bomb on one of the flights."
Qaddafi also began a series of persistent but unsuccessful attempts
to unify Libya with
other Arab countries. He was adamantly opposed to negotiations
with Israel and became
a leader of the so-called rejectionist front of Arab nations
in this regard. He also earned a
reputation for military adventurism; his government was implicated
in several abortive
coup attempts in Egypt and The Sudan, and Libyan forces persistently
intervened in the
long-running civil war in neighboring Chad.
1969 September 1: Qadhafi, now a captain in the army, performs a bloodless
coup, and overthrows king Idris 1.
1970: He removes the US and British military bases from Libya.
— Most members of the native Italian and Jewish communities are expelled
1973: All foreign owned petroleum assets are nationalized.—
Territorial dispute with Chad, which involved invasion of northern Chad.
1976: Qadhafi publishes his Green Book. Its second volume
is published in 1980.
1977: Qadhafi introduces the term jamahiriyya, which is to
be translated with 'state of the masses', a system of people's congresses,
labour unions and other mass organizations.
1979: Qadhafi resigns from all official posts, but remain
as the effective ruler of Libya.
1986 April 15: US air force attacks Tripoli and Benghazi where
around 20 people are killed, among them Qadhafi's own adopted infant
1990: Qadhafi remains neutral following Iraq's invasion and
annexation of Kuwait.
1993 October: Unsuccessful attempt by 2,000 members of the
army on Qadhafi's life.
1994 May: Libyan troops withdraw from Chad, and returns to
the original borders.
1995 August: A new attempt on his life, but this has never
been confirmed by Libyan authorities.
— September: Expulsion of Palestinian refugees from Libya. This
an attempt from Qadhafi to address the political problems
the unresolved Palestinian claims on lands annexed with
establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. It was also
a protest to
the peace process that had started 2 years earlier.
1996 July: Bloody riots following a football match, which
is actually a protest against Qadhafi.
1999 February 13: Qadhafi accepts to extradite the two men
accused of being responsible for the Lockerbie bombing in 1988.
"We are capable of destroying America and breaking its
Moammar Qadhafi, Libyan head of state, in an address two months after U.S.
bombing raid on Tripoli, June 15, 1986