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  Author:  Becky Pyle 

                     Making a Volcano
     Make individual volcanoes out of plaster of Paris, Dixie 
     cups and clay.

     1) Put a small ball of clay in the bottom of the cup

     2) Fill cup with plaster.

     3) After it hardens, remove the clay which has made a depression
     in the top of your volcano.

  TEACHER'S NOTE: We took them outside and set them off. I used the
  old vinegar (with red coloring) and soda. Kids loved it! They could take
  them home and erupt them to their hearts' content.

Author: Cantor Remmie Brown Volcanoes Make volcanoes using paper mache over a balloon. 1) Paint them with spray paint and touch them up with waterproof paint. 2) Students may use twigs to make trees or other material for grass on the sides of the volcanoe. TEACHER'S NOTE: This volcanoe, REALLY SHOOTS OFF, with smoke and sparks and ash which spreads down the sides of the volcanoe. (Caution: do in well ventilated location. Preferably one which is also dark to get the best effects. You don't want to set off fire alarms) Material Needed: a) Ammoniumdichromate (excuse spelling) (Found at chemical supply houses) b) Paper Matches c) Pencil shavings from school type pencil sharpener (fine ground) Procedure: Mix the material together: teaspoon of chemical, several matches (heads only) and tablespoon shavings. The match heads give a firy effect. The chemical provides the ash. The Pencil sharpener shavings just make it burn longer. It really is a very effective visual.
Author: Andrea Cox Making a volcano Material needed: a) 4 cups of flour b) 1 cup of salt c) 1 1/2 cups of warm water d) red food coloring e) water f) vinegar g) baking soda h) newspaper i) pie tin or plate j) large mixing bowl k) 38-oz. paper cups l) brown tempera paint (optional) m) paintbrush (optional) Procedure: 1) In a large mixing bowl, place 4 cups of flour, 1 cup of salt, 1 1/2 cups of warm water, and mix together, using your hands. 2) When your mixture becomes doughy, place it on a hard surface (kitchen counter, cutting board, etc.) and knead it until it becomes smooth and rubbery. 3) Mold your dough into a volcano, making sure to leave an opening at the top of the cone deep enough to conceal a paper cup. Bake your volcano in the oven for 30 minutes at 300 degrees fahrenhiet. 4) Remove your volcano from the oven and allow it to cool. Place a paper cup inside the opening of your volcano. If you wish, you can paint your volcano brown and then allow time for it to dry. 5) Place your model volcano on top of some newspaper and prepare it for a simulated eruption. 6) Mix 3 tbs. of baking soda with 4 oz. of water in a paper cup. Then add red food coloring to this mixture until it turns red and pour it into the cup inside the top of your volcano. 7) Pour 1 tsp. of vinegar into the cup inside your volcano and observe what happens. TEACHER'S NOTE: When you combine the baking soda and vinegar, a chemical reaction takes place. A gas is produced which causes your volcano to erupt, similar to the eruption of a real volcano. When pressure from heat, steam, and movement below the earth's surface reaches an extreme, lava will erupt from the top of the volcano.